18-20 March 2015
Cologne University of Applied Sciences, Germany
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A 11: Respondent Behaviour and Data Quality
Media Diary Reloaded: Deep Dive into Multiscreen Behavior
Ipsos GmbH, Germany
The digitalization massively changed the way we use media, content and devices. As consumers we are able to use, interact with and share digital content via various new devices every time and everywhere. Research can utilize these devices and modern lifestyle of “always on” to get closer to consumers. We used this trend to gather representative data about the current media and screen usage in German TV-households. Main research objective was to define the role of TV in our multiscreen world.
A mixed method approach combining traditional face-to-face interviews with an innovative mobile media diary app was applied: The representative media and device usage and consumers’ attitudes were measured via CAPI (n=1500 respondents). During the interviews respondents using other screen based devices in parallel to TV (multiscreeners) qualified for the mobile media diary. The diary captured media usage in the moment of experience: n=72 respondents documented their media and device usage every two hours for two consecutive days. They provided information regarding type of media and device, place and time of usage, parallel media usage and pictures of usage situations. Data collection was distributed equally to cover one whole week. Data of both collection methods was then combined and holistically analyzed.
The research enables us to gain a deep and precise understanding of current media and multiscreen usage as well as the role of each device. Furthermore complex usage situations could be investigated and valuable insights discovered, enriched by pictures taken by the respondents: Screen usage strongly depends on context. There are different peaks for each device used alone or in parallel with other screens during the day.
Instead of a classical paper and pencil media diary or an online diary that is completed only once a day for past usage situations and experiences the data collection via app perfectly fits the lifestyle and behavior of multiscreeners. Using apps to share and document experiences is part of their natural behavior. The mobile diary app takes advantage of this and makes research much more attractive, engaging and also reduces a potential bias of recall.
Deficient data quality as a consequence of respondents’ mobility? Response strategies according to mobility in terms of smart-phone usage and location
Johannes Kepler University, Austria
Relevance & Research Questions: The internet has become an integral part of our lives and takes on an increasingly important role in survey research. The strength of this process is, as Dillman (2007: 400) puts it in a nutshell: “there is no other method of collecting survey data that offers so much potential for so little cost as Web surveys”. Despite and/or because of this progress, at least three related issues of online-data collection (apart from problems with sampling frames) are (still) challenging: i) response rates, ii) motivation and iii) mobility of respondents. The presentation aims to explore their relationship and its consequences for data quality. The main research question is: Does mobility decrease the participants’ motivation (to respond) and subsequently compromise data quality? For answering this question, the theoretical framework of “satisfizing” is applied to measure motivation, taking theoretical considerations about mobility into account.
Methods & Data: The analyses are based on an online-survey dealing with student participation at the university. Motivation strategies in terms of experimental arrangements were included to facilitate the identification of ”satisfizing”. The survey population was randomly divided into groups differentiated by the presence of specific “triggers”. 14.2% of the students (n=17,491) reacted to the invitation, 1916 (11%) answered at least one question but just 7.3% (n=1282) reached the final page.
Results: Mobility affects response rates in terms of significantly higher drop-out rates of mobile respondents. Unexpectedly, the percentage of item non-responses does not differ between mobile and non-mobile respondents, when drop-outs are excluded. However, drop-outs do not significantly influence sample composition concerning study related variables and demographic data. But, the respondents’ involvement in issues related to the survey-topic reduces drop-outs as well as satisfizing strategies does. Both variants have consequences on substantive results, whereas the latter is expected to be connected to mobility.
Added Value: The paper aims to emphasize the importance of record the setting of data collection and satisfizing strategies in case of self-administered online-surveys as it has consequences which are otherwise difficult to verify.
Literature: Dillman, D.A. (2007). Mail and Internet Surveys. The Tailored Design Method. New York: Wiley.
Online Eye-Tracking of Dynamic Advertising Content in (Mobile) Web-Surveys
Dr. Berger Consult, Austria
Relevance & Research Question: Online eye-tracking by use of the patented spotlight-viewer methodology is an academically renowned (e.g. Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 29, Issue 6) and in applied research well established (in Germany e.g. mo’web research, MW Research, Interrogare) way to measure visual attention in online-surveys. However, so far its use had been limited to static advertising material. Due to the popularity of dynamic content in digital advertising the goal of the current research was to also allow rich media and video content to be tested with the spotlight-viewer in (mobile) web-surveys.
Methods & Data: Two main challenges had to be overcome in order to satisfy this demand. First, the data volume had to be minimised to keep download time for study participants within an acceptable limit. Second, it had to be ensured that independent of desktop or mobile device, browser type and internet speed all participants are confronted with the identical visual content at each point of time. Only then data could be jointly analysed. Following this, a video is captured of the screen content and frame rate is reduced if necessary. The (remaining) video frames are then fed into the spotlight-viewer and presented to the participants while simultaneously recording their viewing behaviour.
Results: On the basis of the first empirical results generated with the enhanced spotlight-viewer it is presented in how far, when and which rich-media advertising drives attention of Internet users. As a result the significance of pre-attentional bottom-up processes as well as parafoveal and peripheral vision in digital advertising research is discussed.
Added Value: The added value of the presented enhancement is that all types of dynamic advertising content can be tested on any desktop or mobile internet device concerning the ability to attract and hold attention and this (unlike infrared eye-tracking) in a simple, unobtrusive, low-cost, and time-efficient way. This allows to make an effective choice on which digital ads to run and with what weight in overall ad rotation.
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