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Session Overview
C 4: Gender and Ethnicity
Friday, 11/Sep/2020:
10:00 - 11:20

Session Chair: Simon Munzert, Hertie School, Germany

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Ethnic perspective in e-government use and trust in government: A test of social inequality approaches

Dennis Rosenberg

University of Haifa, Israel

Relevance & Research Question: Keywords: E-government, ethic affiliation, social inequality, trust in government.

Studies in the field of digital government have established the existence of a two-way association between e-government use and trust in government. Yet to date, no study has examined the interactive effect of ethnic affiliation and e-government use on trust in government or the interactive effect of ethnic belonging and trust in government on e-government use. The current study investigated these effects by means of social inequality approaches outlined in Internet sociology studies.

Methods & Data: Keywords: Social survey, categorical regression.

This study has used the data from the 2017 Israel Social Survey. The findings were received from the multivariate categorical (logistic and ordinal) regression models.

Results: Keywords: Ethnic minorities, trust-use interaction.

The study found that Arabs from small localities with varying levels of trust in government (except for those with the highest level) are less likely to use e-government than Israeli Jews with the same levels of trust, yet they are more likely than Israeli Jews to have some degree of trust in government. Arabs from large localities differ from Israeli Jews in terms of e-government use only when they have some degree of trust in government, but they do not differ from Israeli Jews regarding the trust itself. Except for variations in predicted probabilities, no differences were found between the two Arab groups with respect to either of the criteria.

Added Value: Keywords: Locality size, social stratification.

The results provide support for the social stratification approach and in general provide justification for treating disadvantaged minorities according to the size of their residential localities.

Gender Portrayal on Instagram

Dorian Tsolak, Simon Kuehne

Bielefeld University, Germany

Relevance & Research Question:

In the recent decade, social media has been identified as an important source of digital trace data, reflecting real world behaviour in an online environment. Many researchers have analyzed social media data, often text messages, to make inferences about peoples attitudes and opinions. Yet many such opinions and attitudes are not saliently expressed, but remain implicit. One example are gender role attitudes, that are hard to measure using textual data. In this regard, images posted on social media such as Instagram may be better suited to analyze the phenomenon. Existing research has shown that men and women differ in how they portray themselves when being photographed (Goffman 1979, Götz & Becker, 2019, Tortajada et al., 2013). Our study is concerned with the question how images from social media containing gender self-portrayal can be harnessed as a measure of gender role attitudes.

Methods & Data:

We rely on about 800,000 images collected from Instagram in 2018. We present a new approach to quantify gender portrayal using automated image processing. We use a body pose detection algorithm to identify the 2-dimensional skeletons of persons within images. We then cluster these skeletons based on the similarity of their body pose.


As a result we obtain a number of clusters which can be identified as gender typical poses. Examples of typical female body poses include S-shaped body poses reflecting sexual appeal, the feminine touch (touching the own body or hair) implying insecurity, or asymmetric body posture representing fragility. Typical male body poses include the upper body facing the camera square to show strength, or a view aimed into the distance signifying pensiveness.

Added Value:

The (self)-portrayal of women and men has been an active field of research across various disciplines including sociology, psychology and media studies, but has usually been analyzed by qualitative means using small, manually labeled data sets. We provide an automated approach that allows for a quantitative measurement of gender role attitudes within pictures by examining gender portrayal via body poses. Our results contribute to a better understanding of online/social media gender reproduction mechanisms.

Practicing Citizenship and Deliberation online The Socio-Political Dynamic of Closed Women's Groups on Facebook

Vered Elishar-Malka, Yaron Ariel, Dana Weimann-Saks

Yezreel Valley College, Israel

Relevance & Research Question: The importance of deliberative processes to democracy has been studied for a long time now. As people discuss actual issues, share ideas, and try to change their minds in a friendly, open-minded environment, they become active, aware citizens. The flourishing of Social networking sites has encouraged scholars to examine their potential contribution to deliberative processes, as they enable an abundance of opportunities to deliberate. The current study has examined the inner dynamic of closed Israeli women's groups A quantitative content analysis was conducted (coders reliability = 0.73) to examine 1070 random posts and analysis of the profile of the original post contributors (including some indicators that measured the posts’ entire threads) that were written during December 2017-January 2018. All posts derive from a large and well- known closed Israeli women's group on Facebook (with over 100, 000 members). on Facebook to identify deliberative processes among them.

Methods & Data:

Results: An overwhelming majority of posts (89%) included dialogical elements. Furthermore, in most (94%) of the posts, authors' names, profile pictures, and Facebook's full profile were overt. A positive correlation was found between the level of personal exposure and the depth of discourse that followed the user's initial post (r = .214, p <.001). Although most popular topics of the posts were health (15%), motherhood (13%), relationships with partners (12%), and sexuality (9%), many posts were dedicated to political issues. In these posts, group members were freely discussing actual-political issues in a non-judgmental environment, opening themselves to other ideas and points of view

Added ValueThis study highlights the vital role that closed women's groups on Facebook may play in their members' lives, not only in social and psychological aspects, but also in the sense of practicing deliberative interactions, and therefore strengthening the vital sense of being empowered citizens.:

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